Risk Management Report: Iraq
Iraq attained its independence as a kingdom in 1932; it became a republic in 1958. Saddam Hussein’s presidency was marked by conflict, including the 1980-88 war with Iran, the 1991 Gulf war and the US-led occupation in 2003, which removed the Baathist regime. Thirteen years after Saddam’s demise, Iraq has yet to emerge from conflict. GSN’s political risk grade was moved from D to E, reflecting continuing levels of violence. Sunni extremists from Islamic State (IS or Daesh), an alliance of jihadists and former Baathists, dramatically extended its territorial control in 2014, harnessing the huge frustrations of Sunnis, who felt marginalised during Nouri Al-Maliki’s autocratic premiership. The ensuing conflict has dragged the US and allies back to Iraq in a campaign against IS. According to the United Nations mission in Iraq, at least 7,515 civilians were killed in 2015, and 14,855 injured.